PBS NewsHour Weekend full episode December 28, 2019


>>Mitchell: ON THIS EDITION FOR SATURDAY, DECEMBER 28: A LOOK AT TODAY’S HEADLINES; AND NEWSHOUR WEEKEND REPORTERS AND PRODUCERS REFLECT ON THEIR FAVORITE STORIES OF THE YEAR. NEXT, ON PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND.>>PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND IS MADEPOSSIBLE BY:BERNARD AND IRENE SCHWARTZ.SUE AND EDGAR WACHENHEIM III.THE CHERYL AND PHILIP MILSTEINFAMILY.ROSALIND P. WALTER, IN MEMORYOF GEORGE O’NEIL.BARBARA HOPE ZUCKERBERG.CHARLES ROSENBLUM.WE TRY TO LIVE IN THE MOMENT,TO NOT MISS WHAT’S RIGHT INFRONT OF US.AT MUTUAL OF AMERICA, WEBELIEVE TAKING CARE OF TOMORROWCAN HELP YOU MAKE THE MOST OFTODAY.MUTUAL OF AMERICA FINANCIALGROUP, RETIREMENT SERVICES ANDINVESTMENTS.ADDITIONAL SUPPORT HAS BEENPROVIDED BY:AND BY THE CORPORATION FORPUBLIC BROADCASTING, A PRIVATECORPORATION FUNDED BY THEAMERICAN PEOPLE.AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOURPBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKEYOU.THANK YOU.FROM THE TISCH WNET STUDIOS ATLINCOLN CENTER IN NEW YORK,KARINA MITCHELL.>>Mitchell: GOOD EVENING, AND THANK YOU FOR JOINING US. IN MOGADISHU, SOMALIA, THIS MORNING, A TRUCK FILLED WITH EXPLOSIVES BLEW UP, KILLING AT LEAST 78 PEOPLE AND WOUNDING MORE THAN 120 OTHERS. IT WAS THE DEADLIEST ATTACK IN SOMALIA’S CAPITAL CITY IN TWO YEARS. (SIRENS) THE BOMBING TOOK PLACE AT A BUSY SECURITY CHECKPOINT DURING MORNING RUSH HOUR AS PEOPLE RETURNED TO WORK AFTER THE WEEKEND. MOGADISHU’S MAYOR SAID MANY OF THE VICTIMS WERE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS RETURNING TO SCHOOL. THERE IS NO IMMEDIATE CLAIM OF RESPONSIBILITY, BUT SOMALIA’S PRESIDENT CONDEMNED THE ATTACK AS A “HEINOUS ACT OF TERROR” AND BLAMED THE AL QAEDA-LINKED TERRORIST GROUP AL-SHABAB. THE TRUMP ADMINISTRATION HAS INCREASED U.S. AIR STRIKES ON AL-SHABAB IN RECENT YEARS. THE MILITANT GROUP HAS CARRIED OUT ATTACKS IN SOMALIA, AS WELL AS IN NEIGHBORING KENYA AND UGANDA. AL-SHABAB WAS BLAMED FOR TWO TRUCK BOMBINGS IN 2017 THAT KILLED NEARLY 600 PEOPLE, ALSO IN MOGADISHU. IN PARIS TODAY, THOUSANDS MARCHED TO PROTEST THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT’S PLAN TO CHANGE ITS PENSION PROGRAMS. THE DEMONSTRATORS JOINED FORCES WITH THE SO-CALLED YELLOW VESTS, A MOVEMENT FOR SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC JUSTICE THAT IS IN ITS 59th WEEKEND OF PROTESTS. THE NATIONWIDE PENSION REFORM MARCHES AND ACTIONS HAVE DISRUPTED TRANSIT ACROSS FRANCE FOR MUCH OF THE PAST MONTH. SCUFFLES BROKE OUT WITH POLICE TODAY, AND SOME DEMONSTRATORS BURNED CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS. FRENCH PRESIDENT EMMANUEL MACRON WANTS TO RAISE THE RETIREMENT AGE FROM 62 TO 64 AND REFORM PENSION CATEGORIES. UNIONS ARE OPPOSED AND ARE CALLING FOR A MAJOR DAY OF ACTION AGAINST THE PROPOSALS ON JANUARY 9. IN LAFAYETTE, LOUISIANA, TODAY, FIVE PEOPLE DIED WHEN A SMALL PRIVATE PLANE CRASHED IN A WOODED AREA NEAR A POST OFFICE. LOCAL OFFICIALS SAID THERE WAS ONE SURVIVOR FROM THE CRASH OF THE EIGHT-PASSENGER PLANE. THREE PEOPLE ON THE GROUND WERE TAKEN TO AREA HOSPITALS. A NEARBY WALMART STORE WAS EVACUATED AS A PRECAUTION, AND LIGHTS AND POWER WENT OUT NEAR THE SITE. THE CAUSE OF THE PLANE CRASH IS UNDER INVESTIGATION. AUTHORITIES ARE SEARCHING FOR ONE MISSING PERSON AFTER A HELICOPTER CRASH LEFT AT LEAST SIX PEOPLE DEAD IN HAWAII. THE CRASH OCCURRED ON THURSDAY EVENING ON A MOUNTAIN ON THE ISLAND OF KAUAI. THE HELICOPTER WAS CARRYING TWO FAMILIES ON A TOUR OF THE ISLAND’S COASTLINE, A POPULAR TOURIST DESTINATION. THE COAST GUARD SAYS THAT TWO OF THE PASSENGERS ARE BELIEVED TO BE MINORS. THERE ARE NO INDICATIONS THAT ANYONE SURVIVED THE CRASH. A NEW LAW RAISING THE LEGAL AGE TO BUY TOBACCO PRODUCTS TO 21 IS NOW IN EFFECT NATIONWIDE. YESTERDAY, THE U.S. FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION IMPLEMENTED THE CHANGE, PART OF A SWEEPING SPENDING BILL THAT CONGRESS PASSED EARLIER THIS MONTH. THE NEW LAW APPLIES TO ALL TOBACCO PRODUCTS, INCLUDING E-CIGARETTES AND VAPING DEVICES THAT HEAT LIQUID CONTAINING NICOTINE. SEVERAL STATES ALREADY HAD LAWS IN PLACE RESTRICTING TOBACCO USE TO THOSE 21 AND OLDER. WINTER STORMS ARE EXPECTED THROUGHOUT THE SOUTHWEST AND MIDWEST THIS WEEKEND. THIS WEEK, SNOW IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA SHUT DOWN INTERSTATE-5 BETWEEN THE LOS ANGELES AREA AND THE SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY FOR 36 HOURS. THE ROAD WAS REOPENED YESTERDAY. THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE SAYS THE LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM THAT BROUGHT THAT STORM IS HEADING THROUGH ARIZONA AND WILL CONTINUE EAST INTO COLORADO, THE DAKOTAS AND THE UPPER MIDWEST, BRINGING HEAVY SNOW AND ICE.>>Mitchell: FOR THE LATEST ON SATURDAY’S DEADLY TRUCK BOMBING IN MOGADISHU, SOMALIA, VISIT www.pbs.org/newshour.>>Mitchell: AS 2019 DRAWS TO AN END, WE’RE TAKING A LOOK BACK AT SOME OF THE STORIES WE’VE BROUGHT TO YOU THIS YEAR WITH THE PRODUCERS AND REPORTERS BEHIND THEM. THE TEAM OF SAM WEBER AND CONNIE KARGBO SPENT A GOOD DEAL OF TIME ON THE ROAD WITH THE HOST OF THIS BROADCAST, HARI SREENIVASAN. THEY SAT DOWN RECENTLY TO TALK ABOUT THIS PAST YEAR AND WHAT’S IN STORE FOR 2020.>>Sreenivasan: CONNIE KARGBO, SAM WEBER, THANKS FOR JOINING US. HAPPY 2019. LET’S START WITH ONE OF THE STORIES THAT YOU GUYS PRODUCED WITH ME, FOR ME OUT IN THE MANGROVES OF FLORIDA. FIRST OF ALL, HOW DID THAT STORY IDEA COME ABOUT IN THE FIRST PLACE?>>WELL, IT WAS ACTUALLY A COLLABORATION WITH SEVERAL OTHER MEDIA OUTLETS, INCLUDING THE NON-PROFIT, NON-ADVOCACY GROUP, CLIMATE CENTRAL.>>Sreenivasan: UH-HUH.>>SO, IT WAS A STORY THAT THEY BROUGHT TO US, BUT IT WAS A REALLY SORT OF FASCINATING STORY OF A PLANT THAT WAS MAKING INROADS FURTHER AND FURTHER NORTH BECAUSE THERE WAS LESS AND LESS FREEZES AND LESS AND LESS SEVERE COLD.>>Sreenivasan: AND WE GOT TO GO OUT AND WATCH THE SCIENTISTS WORK.>>ABSOLUTELY, AND I THINK THAT WAS PROBABLY QUITE THE MOST INTERESTING PART OF THE STORY WAS BEING ABLE TO FOLLOW AS THE SCIENTISTS CONDUCTED SOME OF THE INVESTIGATIONS THEY WERE DOING.>>Sreenivasan: EACH OF THESE CHAMBERS IS A GLIMPSE INTO THE FUTURE. BY SHIELDING IT FROM THE ELEMENTS, THE TEMPERATURE INSIDE IS A COUPLE OF DEGREES CENTIGRADE WARMER. BY DOING THIS, SCIENTISTS CAN STUDY WHAT HAPPENS TO THE SALT MARSH AND THE MANGROVE IN HERE AT THESE HIGHER TEMPERATURES VERSUS WHAT’S OUTSIDE.>>WHAT WE SEE HAPPENING AT LEAST IN OUR FIRST SIX MONTHS OF DATA IS THAT THE MANGROVES SEEM TO BE GROWING FASTER IN THE WARMING CHAMBERS.>>Sreenivasan: THE WETFEET PROJECT IS A MULTI-YEAR INITIATIVE FUNDED BY THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION. RESEARCHERS PULL WATER SAMPLES TO MEASURE DATA, INCLUDING SALINITY.>>IT’S KIND OF LIKE GETTING BLOOD FROM A STONE, THOUGH, RIGHT?>>Sreenivasan: THEY USE BLUETOOTH-CONNECTED SENSORS TO TRACK ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS LIKE TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY BOTH INSIDE AND OUTSIDE OF THE CHAMBERS. IS THIS MANGROVE GOING TO REPLACE THAT MARSH?>>LIKELY, YES. UNLESS THERE’S A DEEP FREEZE, IT’S GOING TO OVERTOP THE MARSH. AND, AS IT DOES SO, IT’S GOING TO SHADE OUT THE MARSHES UNDER IT, AND IT’LL JUST TAKE OVER.>>Sreenivasan: AND THIS IS SOMEWHAT DIRTY WORK. I MEAN, THIS IS…>>ABSOLUTELY, YEAH!>>Sreenivasan: …NOT THE STUFF THAT YOU LEARN IN THE ABSTRACT IN A CLASSROOM. THIS IS REALLY GET YOUR HANDS DIRTY, GET YOUR FEET DIRTY.>>ABSOLUTELY. YOU’RE WALKING THROUGH MUD. YOU’RE WALKING IN SOME SWAMPS. BUT I THINK WHAT WAS INTERESTING WAS REALLY FOLLOWING HARI, TO A DEGREE, AND CATCHING SOME OF THE MOMENTS WHERE THE… THE MUD SEEMED TO KIND OF TAKEN HOLD OF YOU.>>Sreenivasan: OH, LOST IT, LOST IT, LOST IT! RIGHT. I HAD THAT SPECIAL RELATIONSHIP WITH MY BOOT, WHICH KEPT… YEAH, THE FOOT WOULD COME OUT, AND THE BOOT WOULD STAY. YEAH, THAT WASN’T VERY FUN. YOU WERE ALSO ONE OF THE FIRST TEAMS THAT WE WENT OUT IN THE FIELD AND TOOK THE NEWSHOUR WEEKEND PROGRAM OUT TO HOUSTON. IT WAS AROUND A BIG ANNIVERSARY THAT THE WHOLE COUNTRY, THE WHOLE WORLD WAS CELEBRATING.>>YES. IT WAS THE 50th ANNIVERSARY OF THE FIRST MOONWALK. AND FOR SOMEONE WHO OBVIOUSLY DID NOT LIVE…NOTOBVIOUSLY,BUT DID NOT LIVE… (LAUGHTER) …DID NOT LIVE THROUGH THAT PERIOD, ITWASREALLY INTERESTING GETTING TO SEE IT FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THOSE WHO WERE ALIVE AND ARE NOW CURRENTLY ACTUALLY WORKING AT NASA.>>AND IT WAS REALLY HARD TO NOT GET WRAPPED UP IN THAT, GETTING TO SEE A CONTROL ROOM THAT THEY HAD LITERALLY RESTORED DOWN TO PACKS OF CIGARETTES, COFFEE CUPS. IT JUST REALLY BROUGHT HOME WHAT A MONUMENTAL FEAT THIS WAS USING THE TECHNOLOGY THEY HAD 50 YEARS AGO.>>Sreenivasan: RIGHT, BECAUSE WE HAVE MORE IN OUR SMARTPHONE NOW THAN I THINK WHAT THE “APOLLO 11” OF THE LANDER ACTUALLY HAD, COMPUTING POWER-WISE, RIGHT? IT’S STUNNING TO THINK THAT EVEN IN THAT CONTROL ROOM, THERE WERE… SOME OF THE PROJECTED IMAGES IN THE BACK, THEY WERE LITERALLY HAND DRAWINGS OF WHERE THIS PLACE SHOULD BE. AND WE JUST TAKE FOR GRANTED ON G.P.S. LIKE, “OH, WELL, SHOULDN’T WE BE ABLE TO TRACK X AND Y?” WELL, NOT THEN.>>AND THEN, BEING ABLE SORT OF CATCH UP WITH A FLIGHT DIRECTOR TODAY AND THE REALLY INCREDIBLY TIGHT TIMELINE THAT THEY’VE BEEN CHARGED WITH TO COMPLETE THE NEXT SET OF MANNED MISSIONS INTO SPACE.>>IT WAS ALSO REALLY INTERESTING GETTING TO SEE SOME OF THE LUNAR SAMPLES. YOU KNOW, WE SPOKE WITH A CURATOR THERE WHO’S BEEN MINDING THESE AND BEING ABLE TO SEND THESE SAMPLES TO RESEARCHERS ACROSS THE COUNTRY. AND TO SEE THESE UP CLOSE, TO KNOW THAT THERE ARE 2,000 SAMPLES BEHIND SOME OF THESE SCREENS THAT WE WERE LOOKING AT, THAT WAS PRETTY IMPRESSIVE.>>Sreenivasan: AND THE WAY THAT THEY ACTUALLY STORE THESE, HOW THEY TRANSPORT THESE. I MEAN, YOU’RE AT THE FIRST THING LIKE, “THESE ARE JUST ROCKS. OH, WAIT, THEY’RE ROCKS FROM THEMOON!”>>EXACTLY. AND WHAT WAS ALSO INTERESTING WAS KNOWING THAT THERE WAS EVEN MORE THAT WE HAVEN’T SEEN, THAT THEY WERE JUST AT THE CUSP OF OPENING NEW VAULTS THAT WOULD GIVE US MORE INFORMATION AS TO WHAT INFORMATION WE DON’T EVEN HAVE ABOUT THE MOON YET. SO, THAT WAS GREAT.>>Sreenivasan: NOW, ONE OF THE STORIES THAT YOU DID IS AN INTERESTING ONE ABOUT A SLAVE REBELLION THAT MOST PEOPLE DON’T KNOW ABOUT. WHAT WAS THIS ONE ABOUT?>>THIS WAS 1811 SLAVE REBELLION. IT TOOK PLACE IN LOUISIANA. AND, ESSENTIALLY, IT WAS THE CULMINATION OF MANY, MANY ENSLAVED PEOPLE COMING TOGETHER, PLANNING TO TAKE OVER THE PLANTATIONS THAT THEY WERE PART OF, MARCH TO NEW ORLEANS, TAKE OVERTHATCITY AND FORM A NEW COUNTRY FREE OF SLAVERY. SO, IT WAS REALLY INTERESTING SPEAKING WITH THE ARTIST WHO WAS ABLE TO KIND OF TRACE THIS 30- MILE JOURNEY TO NEW ORLEANS, WHICH OBVIOUSLY THEY NEVER MADE THAT.>>Sreenivasan: RIGHT.>>SO, IT WAS A… IT WAS A REALLY GREAT EXPERIENCE RUNNING ALONG AS THESE REENACTORS, 200- PLUS OF THEM, WALKING FROM WHAT WAS LAPLACE NOW IN LOUISIANA, AND ACTUALLY MAKING IT TO CONGO SQUARE IN NEW ORLEANS.>>Sreenivasan: AND HOW DIFFICULT WAS IT TO GET JUST THAT, EVEN THE REENACTMENT?>>IT WAS… IT WAS REALLY DIFFICULT BECAUSE, OBVIOUSLY, IN CERTAIN PARTS, THEY WERE A LITTLE FURTHER AWAY FROM YOU, SO SHOOTING SOME OF THOSE SCENES WERE A LITTLE HARD. BUT WHAT WAS REALLY FASCINATING WAS HOW DETAILED THEY GOT WITH SOME OF THE COSTUMES. YOU KNOW, THIS WAS 19th CENTURY CLOTHES THEY WERE… THEY WERE WEARING, MACHETES, MUSKETS. AND THEY REALLY GOT INTO THE DETAILS OF WHAT IT WOULD HAVE BEEN LIKE TO WEAR THESE CLOTHES AT THAT TIME PERIOD, AND THEY BROUGHT IT TO LIFE HERE IN 2019.>>Sreenivasan: OKAY. AND ONE OF THE STORIES THAT YOU FOLKS ARE WORKING ON THAT WILL AIR SOON IS ABOUT WIND ENERGY. WHAT… WHAT’S NEW ABOUT WIND ENERGY? WHAT’S INTERESTING ABOUT IT THAT PUTS IT IN THE NEWS TODAY?>>IT’S AN ENERGY THAT MAYBE WE MIGHT TAKE FOR GRANTED A LITTLE BIT, AND MAYBE ESPECIALLY FOR US HERE IN THE NORTHEAST WHERE IT’S MAYBE NOT AS PREVALENT. BUT IT’S A RENEWABLE SOURCE OF POWER THAT, IN THE LAST DECADE, DECADE-PLUS, HAS REALLY BECOME A POWERHOUSE. AND FOR THE FIRST TIME THIS YEAR, IN 2019 MOVING INTO 2020, IT WILL OVERTAKE HYDRO POWER ASTHEBIGGEST RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE IN THE UNITED STATES. IT’S REALLY AN INDUSTRY THAT’S GOTTEN A HUGE BOOST FROM FEDERAL TAX CREDITS THAT ARE ACTUALLY STARTING TO PHASE OUT…>>Sreenivasan: OKAY.>>…AFTER 2020. SO, IT’S SORT OF TAKING A LOOK AT THAT INDUSTRY AND SOME OF THE CHALLENGES THAT I THINK BOTH ENERGY PRODUCERS AND POLICYMAKERS KNOW THAT THEY’RE GOING TO FACE AS WE START THINKING ABOUT HOW WE’RE GOING TO MAKE MORE OF A TRANSITION TO A CARBON-FREE FUTURE, PARTICULARLY WHEN IT COMES TO POWER GENERATION.>>Sreenivasan: SO, WHERE’D YOU GO? WHAT DID YOU SEE?>>SO, WE WERE IN TEXAS, IN THE CENTRAL PART OF TEXAS, AND IT’S REALLY INTERESTING BECAUSE THAT’S PART OF THE COUNTRY THAT ALSO HAS A LOT OF OIL FIELDS. SO, IT WAS INTERESTING CONTRASTING THIS DIRTIER ENERGY WITH ONE THAT’S SUPPOSED TO BE THE FUTURE FOR THE UNITED STATES.>>Sreenivasan: YEAH.>>IT’S… IT’S ALSO… ONE OF THE BIGGER INNOVATIONS IN THIS INDUSTRY IS THAT THE TURBINES HAVE GOTTEN SO MUCH MORE EFFICIENT. AND PART OF THAT ALSO MEANS BIGGER.>>Sreenivasan: YES.>>SO, BEING ON THE GROUND AT A PROJECT THAT’S SORT OF JUST GETTING GOING. SO, THERE WAS BASICALLY FIVE TURBINES UP WHEN WE WERE THERE OUT OF 191 THAT WILL BE BUILT AND ONLINE IN 2020. AND GETTING TO SEE, FOR INSTANCE, THESE BLADES GETTING TRUCKED IN PAST US. I MEAN, IT’S REALLY JAW DROPPING TO SEE THE AMOUNT OF INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE AMOUNT OF LOGISTICAL WORK THAT GOES INTO EVEN JUST PHYSICALLY GETTING THESE THINGS TO THE PLACE, LET ALONE, YOU KNOW, FOR INSTANCE, TAKING A TOWER SEGMENT OFF OF AN OVERSIZED TRUCK AND CAREFULLY PLACING ON THE GROUND TO BE STAGED TO THEN BE LIFTED UP.>>Sreenivasan: ALL RIGHT, SAM WEBER, CONNIE KARGBO, THANK YOU BOTH.>>THANK YOU.>>Mitchell: NEWSHOUR WEEKEND INTRODUCED A NEW SERIES THIS YEAR CALLED “THE FUTURE OF FOOD.” IT EXPLORES WHAT’S BEING DONE GLOBALLY TO INCREASE FOOD SUSTAINABILITY AND COMBAT FOOD INSECURITY. FOR MORE, HERE’S HARI SREENIVASAN AGAIN WITH THE SERIES’ CO-PRODUCERS, MEGAN THOMPSON AND MELANIE SALTZMAN.>>Sreenivasan: OUR RESIDENT FOODIES ARE IN THE HOUSE. MELANIE, MEGAN, HOW DID THIS SERIES ABOUT FOOD COME IN THE FIRST PLACE?>>WE ALL EAT FOOD…>>Sreenivasan: YEAH. …AND IT’S THE INTERSECTION OF SO MANY THINGS– POLITICS, THE ENVIRONMENT, CLIMATE CHANGE, TECHNOLOGY. SO MANY THINGS, WE’VE LEARNED, KIND OF REVOLVE AROUND IT AND ARE AFFECTED BY IT. AND THEN, WE ALSO REACHED OUT TO MARK BITTMAN, WHO’S A VERY WELL-KNOWN FOOD AUTHOR, AND HE KIND OF CAME ON BOARD AS BOTH ONE OF OUR REPORTERS AND AS OUR HOST.>>SO, WE ENDED UP COMING UP WITH THREE DIFFERENT SORT OF TOPIC THEMES. WE DID A FEW STORIES ABOUT TECHNOLOGY AND FOOD.>>Sreenivasan: YEAH.>>AND WE DID A FEW STORIES ABOUT FARMING. AND WE DID A COUPLE OF STORIES ABOUT WHAT WE’RE CALLING FOOD WASTE AND FOOD SECURITY.>>Sreenivasan: LET’S START WITH THE TECH ANGLE. YOU HAD A COUPLE OF PIECES AROUND THAT. WHAT DO YOU FIND FASCINATING ABOUT IT?>>GENETICALLY-MODIFIED SALMON IS THE FIRST ANIMAL APPROVED FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION. MILLIONS OF DOLLARS WENT INTO RESEARCH. THE F.D.A. TOOK DECADES TO APPROVE IT. AND NOW, IT’S ACTUALLY HAPPENING. SO, WE THOUGHT THAT IT WAS A REALLY WORTHWHILE STORY TO KIND OF LOOK AT GENETIC MODIFICATION AND SEE HOW THE SALMON COULD… COULD BE ON YOUR PLATE IN THE VERY, VERY NEAR FUTURE.>>A GENETICALLY-ENGINEERED SALMON THAT GROWS TWICE AS FAST AS REGULAR SALMON WHILE ACTUALLY CONSUMING LESS FEED. THE DIFFERENCE IS SIGNIFICANT; THESE FISH ARE BOTH ABOUT TWO YEARS OLD. IT’S REALLY HARD TO BELIEVE THAT THESE SALMON ARE THE SAME AGE, AND THERE’S SUCH A HUGE SIZE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE TWO OF THEM.>>THIS FISH IS FIVE KILOS, READY FOR MARKET. THAT FISH IS A LONG WAYS FROM MARKET.>>IN THE UNITED STATES, THE MAJORITY OF THE SALMON CONSUMED IS ATLANTIC SALMON. BUT ALMOST ALL OF IT IS IMPORTED FROM OCEAN FARMS IN NORWAY, CHILE AND CANADA. THAT’S BECAUSE, IN THE U.S., WILD ATLANTIC SALMON IS ENDANGERED, SO CATCHING IT IS ILLEGAL. OCEAN FARMING IS ONLY PERMITTED IN A FEW PLACES, AND, UNTIL RECENTLY, THERE WASN’T MUCH INTEREST IN EXPENSIVE LAND-BASED PRODUCTION LIKE AQUABOUNTY’S.>>IF YOU HAVE A FISH THAT GROWS A LITTLE FASTER, SUCH AS AN AQUAADVANTAGE THAT REACHES MARKET WEIGHT IN HALF THE TIME, YOU CAN PRODUCE THOSE FISH ALMOST ANYWHERE BECAUSE YOU CAN GROW THEM IN A LAND-BASED AQUACULTURE FACILITY CLOSER TO CONSUMERS. SO, YOU CAN REDUCE THE TRANSPORTATION COSTS, YOU CAN REDUCE THE CARBON FOOTPRINT ASSOCIATED WITH TRANSPORTATION. SO, THIS… THIS OPENS UP A WHOLE NEW OPPORTUNITY FOR GLOBAL SALMON PRODUCTION.>>THIS IS A PRETTY BIG DEAL. I MEAN, THIS COMPANY, AQUABOUNTY, IS DOING SOMETHING THAT’S NEVER BEEN DONE BEFORE. WHAT I THINK WE BOTH KIND OF FOUND FASCINATING WAS THAT WHEN WE ACTUALLY WENT TO VISIT THE COMPANY, IT’S ACTUALLY SORT OF A REALLY MODEST AND SORT OF ISOLATED OPERATION.>>Sreenivasan: WHERE ISOLATED?>>SO, THE MAIN OPERATIONS WHERE THEY’RE PRODUCING THE FISH, OR WHERE THEYHAVEBEEN AT LEAST– THEYHADBEEN– IS IN PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND, CANADA, WHICH IS OFF THE COAST… EAST COAST OF CANADA. IT’S A SMALL ISLAND.>>Sreenivasan: THERE’S NO NON- STOPS FROM NEW YORK.>>THERE ARE NO NON-STOPS FROM NEW YORK.>>THE PLANE WASTINYTINY, AND THERE WAS ONE GUY THAT DID EVERYTHING.>>Sreenivasan: YEAH.>>HE WAS THE STEWARDESS, HE WAS THE PILOT, HE WAS THE…THE LUGGAGE GUY.>>Sreenivasan: YEAH.>>IT WAS… IT WAS GREAT.>>THERE WAS LITERALLY NO DOOR ON THE COCKPIT. IT WAS, YOU KNOW. AND THEN, ONCE YOU GET TO THE ISLAND, YOU HAVE TO DRIVE ANOTHER HOUR OUT TO THE EDGE. AND, YOU KNOW, IT’S THIS SMALL BUILDING BEHIND A CHAIN-LINK FENCE. YOU’D HAVE NO IDEA WHAT WAS HAPPENING IN THERE. THERE’S ONLY REALLY A HANDFUL OF PEOPLE EVEN IN THIS BUILDING.>>Sreenivasan: YEAH.>>BUT THEY’RE DOING SOMETHING THAT’S REALLY HUGE AND SORT OF GROUNDBREAKING. THAT WAS REALLY INTERESTING TO SEE.>>Sreenivasan: OKAY. THEN, YOU ALSO HAD A PIECE ALSO TECH-RELATED, BUT MEAT GROWN IN A LAB. I THINK ANYBODY HEARS THAT SENTENCE, THERE’S A “HMM,” HESITANT MOMENT ABOUT IT. BUT WHEN DID YOU… WHAT DID YOU GUYS FIND?>>PEOPLE THINK OF MEAT IN A LAB, AND THEY THINK OF PLANT-BASED.>>Sreenivasan: MM-HMM.>>BUT THIS WAS FASCINATING TO US BECAUSE IT’S ACTUAL ANIMAL CELLS BEING TAKEN INTO THE LAB AND PRODUCING MEAT FROM THE ANIMAL CELLS. AND IT’S… IT’S FASCINATING. YOU KNOW, WITH ALL OF OUR STORIES, WE WANTED TO KIND OF TAKE A SOLUTIONS-BASED APPROACH AND SAY THERE ARE ALL THESE PROBLEMS WITH OUR FOOD SYSTEM. HOW CAN WE TELL REPORTS THAT ARE BOTH REALLY DIGGING INTO THOSE PROBLEMS BUT ARE POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS, AS WELL? BUT WE’RE FINDING THAT THEY’RE REALLY CONTROVERSIAL. THERE ARE PEOPLE WHO, FOR ETHICAL REASONS, REALLY OPPOSE CELL-BASED MEAT, AND, IN THE SAME VEIN, FOR ETHICAL REASONS, REALLY, REALLY SUPPORT IT. SO, IT’S BEEN INTERESTING, KIND OF DIVING INTO THE CONTROVERSY.>>VALENTI STARTED RESEARCHING THE IDEA OF CREATING MEAT IN A LAB. HE’D ALWAYS BEEN BOTHERED BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF MEAT PRODUCTION AND ALSO THE FACT THAT BILLIONS OF ANIMALS ARE SLAUGHTERED FOR MEAT EACH YEAR. VALENTI WALKED AWAY FROM HIS PROMISING CARDIOLOGY CAREER AND MOVED HIS FAMILY TO THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA TO PURSUE THE IDEA OF CREATING WHAT’S KNOWN AS CELL-BASED MEAT. IN 2015, VALENTI LAUNCHED MEMPHIS MEATS, ONE OF THE FIRST PRIVATE COMPANIES IN THE WORLD FOCUSED ON THE TECHNOLOGY. THE NEXT YEAR, MEMPHIS MEATS DEBUTED ITS FIRST PRODUCT.>>IT TASTES LIKE A MEATBALL.>>Sreenivasan: OKAY, YOU DID BOTH TASTE IT.>>MM-HMM.>>Sreenivasan: AND?>>IT WAS PRETTY GOOD. YOU KNOW, WE… WE TASTED TWO DIFFERENT CHICKEN PRODUCTS. ONE OF THE COMPANIES WAS MAKING A CHICKEN NUGGET. THESE GROUND MEAT PRODUCTS ARE A LITTLE BIT EASIER TO MAKE BECAUSE IT’S BASICALLY A COMBINATION OF ANIMAL CELLS THEY’VE GROWN IN A LAB AND OTHER INGREDIENTS, RIGHT? YOU KNOW, THESE OTHER INGREDIENTS HELP WITH THE TEXTURE AND THE TASTE.>>Sreenivasan: MM-HMM.>>SO, THE CHICKEN NUGGET WAS PRETTY TASTY. IT WAS FRIED. IT WAS, YOU KNOW, DIPPED IN A SAUCE.>>Sreenivasan: YEAH.>>AND IT SORT OF BRINGS UP ANOTHER, YOU KNOW, KIND OF MAYBE AWKWARD POINT ABOUT THESE STORIES, WHICH WAS BEFORE WE DID THIS SERIES ABOUT FOOD, I DON’T THINK I HAVE EVER HAD TO EAT ON CAMERA BEFORE!>>Sreenivasan: (LAUGHS)>>I HAD TO EAT FOR, LIKE… ON LIKE, THREE DIFFERENT OF THESE STORIES.>>I’VE BEEN GETTING SO MUCH JOY. IT’S SO WEIRD. I… I FEEL LIKE I’M PUTTING HER THROUGH HER PACES, BUT I’M LIKE, “JUST TAKE ONE MORE BITE. JUST TAKE ONE MORE BITE.”>>Sreenivasan: YEAH.>>AND YEAH, WE’VE DONE A BUNCH OF SHOOTING, A BUNCH OF SCENES OF GETTING HER TO EAT EVERYTHING FROM THE CHICKEN, TO THE CHICKEN NUGGETS, TO THE SALMON, TO HAMBURGERS.>>OKAY, HERE I GO.>>GO FOR IT.>>IT’SVERYTENDER. DO YOU THINK THAT THEY’LL EVER BE ABLE TO GROW A HAMBURGER LIKE THIS IN A LAB?>>I THINK, GIVEN ENOUGH TIME AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, YES.>>HE GAVE ME A TASTE OF THE PRODUCT. IT’S DELICIOUS.>>(LAUGHS)>>THE GRAIN IS NICE AND CRUNCHY. IT’S GOT A NICE CHEW TO IT.>>Sreenivasan: ALL RIGHT, LET’S TALK A LITTLE BIT ABOUT THE FARMING PIECES THAT YOU GUYS ALSO DID AND HOW… HOW NOT JUST TECHNOLOGY, BUT HOW WE NEED TO BE THINKING ABOUT HOW OUR FOOD IS GROWN.>>I MEAN, A LOT OF THE STORIES WE DID DO HAVE THESE INTERNATIONAL COMPONENTS, BUT WE REALLY WANTED TO DO FARMING IN THE UNITED STATES. AND WE STARTED LOOKING INTO IOWA. THEY’RE A POWERHOUSE PRODUCER OF CORN, OF SOY. YOU KNOW, 23 MILLION ACRES OF FARMLAND PRODUCES THOSE TWO CROPS. AND IT HASN’T ALWAYS BEEN LIKE THAT. BUT AS A RESULT, YOU KNOW, WE LEARNED THAT THERE IS SOIL EROSION, THERE’S ISSUES WITH FLOODING BECAUSE THE… THE WATER DOESN’T GET HELD ONTO THE LAND LIKE IT USED TO. AND THERE’S NITRATES GOING INTO THE WATER, SO THERE’S WATER POLLUTION. WE KIND OF JUST REALIZED BECAUSE OF THIS AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM, ALL OF THESE ISSUES HAVE COME TO LIGHT. AND WE MET WITH A SMALL GROUP OF FARMERS THAT ARE TRYING TO BOTH CONTINUE THEIR BUSINESSES, THEIR LIVELIHOODS, BUT IMPLEMENT MUCH MORE SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS AS THEY… AS THEY MOVE FORWARD.>>SAM BENNETT IS A SIXTH- GENERATION FARMER.>>NOT LIKE THIS.>>HIS FAMILY’S BEEN ON THIS LAND IN NORTHWEST IOWA SINCE 1883. LIKE MOST FARMERS HERE, HE GROWS MAINLY CORN AND SOYBEANS. BUT TODAY, BENNETT IS SHOWING CLOSE TO 100 FELLOW FARMERS SOME BIG CHANGES HE’S MAKING ON HIS LAND.>>WE’RE GOING TO HARVEST PROBABLY MIDDLE OF JULY. IT LOOKS LIKE THE RYE WILL BE READY BEFORE THE OATS.>>WE HAVE ABOUT 2,000 ACRES ALTOGETHER ON OUR FARM. WE’VE STARTED INTEGRATING SMALL GRAINS LIKE OATS AND RYE INTO OUR ROTATION, TOO. AND THOSE REALLY AREN’T CROPS THAT ARE FOUND REALLY ANYWHERE IN IOWA. THERE… THERE’S NOT A LOT OF ACRES OF THOSE.>>THIS PRACTICE OF GROWING A VARIETY OF CROPS, TAKING A BREAK FROM THE CORN AND SOYBEANS, IS CALLED “DIVERSIFIED CROP ROTATIONS.” BENNETT SAYS HE PLANTS THESE CROPS CLOSER TOGETHER SO THERE ARE MORE OF THEM. THAT MEANS MORE ROOTS IN THE SOIL, WHICH IMPROVES SOIL AND WATER QUALITY.>>I THINK MY DAD COMES FROM A GENERATION THAT, IF YOU WORK HARDER, YOU’LL BE MORE SUCCESSFUL. AND I THINK WHAT I’D LIKE TO SAY IN MY GENERATION IS THAT IF YOU WORK SMARTER, YOU’LL BE MORE SUCCESSFUL. AND TAKING ON SOME OF THESE NEWER PRACTICES, SOME OF THESE SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES,ISWORKING SMARTER.>>IT’S INTERESTING BECAUSE I HAD NEVER BEEN TO IOWA.>>Sreenivasan: MM-HMM.>>I DON’T KNOW MANY FARMERS. AND MAKING THOSE CALLS AND TRYING TO GET PEOPLE TO OPEN UP TO US, IT WAS MORE CHALLENGING THAN I INITIALLY THOUGHT. IT WAS A LOT OF JUST MAKING PHONE CALLS AND EXPLAINING OUR INTENTIONS AND SAYING, “LOOK, WE WANT TO SEE WHAT IT’S LIKE BEING A FARMER OUT HERE AND SOME OF THE CHALLENGES YOU’RE DEALING WITH. PLEASE BE OPEN TO TALK TO US.” AND IN THE END, THEY WERE GREAT. ACTUALLY, THE ONE… ONE OF THE PEOPLE WHO WERE HESITANT TO SPEAK WITH ME AT FIRST, AT THE END OF A REALLY LONG SHOOT DAY, HE HAD A NEWBORN BABY AT HOME; HIS WIFE, HE SAID, “YOU KNOW, IF WE’RE DONE BY 6:00, I MIGHT BE GETTING DIVORCED,” LIKE, WE’VE GOT TO HURRY UP. SO, WE’RE LEAVING, AND MY SHOOTER, HE WAS DRIVING AND GOT STUCK IN THE DITCH.>>CURRENTLY, WE’RE STUCK IN A DITCH IN THE SIDE OF THE ROAD. I DON’T EVEN KNOW IF THIS IS ACTUALLY A ROAD.>>AND I HAD TO CALL FARMER SAM AND SAY, “I’M REALLY SORRY, BUT WE REALLY NEED YOU TO GET US OUT OF THIS DITCH.” AND HE HAD TO COME AND LEAVE THE BABY AND LEAVE THE WIFE, AND HE WAS GREAT.>>SAM, YOU’VE COME TO SAVE US?>>WORKING ON IT. DOES THIS BABY HAVE FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE? MAYBE, PROBABLY NOT.>>HE CAME OUT, GOT US, GAVE US A HUG, AND WE WERE ON OUR WAY. SO, IT WAS NICE THAT HE WAS WILLING TO DO THAT AND HE DIDN’T LEAVE US IN THE DITCH. I FELT GOOD ABOUT IT.>>Sreenivasan: YEAH. SO, THAT WAS IOWA. WHERE ELSE DID YOU GO?>>IN DOING SOME OF THE REPORTING FOR THIS STORY, WE WERE BOTH WORKING ON IT, AND SOMEBODY MENTIONED SOMETHING CALLED KERNZA. AND WE WERE I THINK BOTH LIKE, “WHAT IS KERNZA?” IT TURNS OUT IT’S ACTUALLY A VERY FASCINATING STORY. I MEAN, A LOT OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS THAT MELANIE WAS JUST TALKING ABOUT EXIST IN FARMING BECAUSE PRETTY MUCH ALL THE CROPS THAT WE PLANT, OR THE VAST MAJORITY, ARE ANNUAL PLANTS. SOMETHING YOU DON’T REALLY THINK ABOUT. BUT WHAT THAT MEANS IS AFTER ONE SEASON, THE PLANT DIES. THEY HAVE… YOU KNOW, THE ROOTS HAVE TO BE PULLED OUT OF THE GROUND, AND THE SOIL HAS TO BE TURNED OVER AND REPLANTED. AND THAT ACTUALLY IS VERY DAMAGING TO THE SOIL.>>Sreenivasan: SURE.>>AND IT’S ALSO A CONTRIBUTOR TO CLIMATE CHANGE. I MEAN, CARBON DIOXIDE IS RELEASED OUT OF THE SOIL.>>Sreenivasan: YEAH.>>SO, THERE ARE SOME SCIENTISTS BACK IN THE ’70s AND ’80s THAT SAID WE SHOULD BE LOOKING INTO FIGURING OUT HOW TO CREATE CROPS THAT AREPERENNIALS,CROPS THAT STAY IN THE GROUND FOR MANY YEARS AND CAN ACTUALLY REPAIR THE SOIL AND TRAP CARBON. AND THE MOST SUCCESSFUL THING THEY’VE COME UP WITH SO FAR IS SOMETHING CALLED KERNZA. SO, IT WAS A REALLY FASCINATING STORY…>>Sreenivasan: YEAH.>>…ABOUT SOMETHING THAT NOT MANY OF US… I MEAN, I DID NOT REALIZE THAT MOST OF OUR FOOD THAT WE EAT ARE THESE ANNUAL PLANTS.>>Mitchell: FOR MORE ON OUR REPORTER’S YEAR-END FAVORITES, WATCH HERE, OR ONLINE AT www.pbs.org/newshour.>>Sreenivasan: SO, AFTER HAVING DONE ALL OF THIS, HOW HAS IT IMPACTED THE WAY THAT YOU SIT DOWN AT THE TABLE, WHETHER IT’S YOUR OWN OR AT A RESTAURANT? DOES IT CROSS YOUR MIND, CONSIDERING THAT YOU NOW HAVE ALL OF THIS NEW INFORMATION?>>IT’S FUNNY. I COME INTO THE OFFICE EVERYDAY. I GO TO THE COFFEE SHOP DOWNSTAIRS– YOU GUYS KNOW THIS ABOUT ME– AND I SEE THEM THROWING AWAY FOOD EVERY MORNING.>>Sreenivasan: HMM.>>AND IT GOT TO A POINT WHERE I WENT TO THE MANAGER, AND I SAID, “I’M DOING THIS SERIES. YOU KNOW, I’M REALLY PASSIONATE ABOUT IT.” AND A FEW TIMES I’VE CONVINCED THEM, I’VE GOTTEN A BIG GARBAGE BAG AND PUT ALL THE FOOD INTO IT AND THEN GAVE IT OUT TO EVERYONE IN THE OFFICE. IT’S SMALL THINGS.>>Sreenivasan: HMM? HOLD ON. I THINK I’VE HAD ONE OF THOSE SNACKS. NO.>>IT’S SMALL THINGS, BUT, LIKE, I THINK DOING THIS REPORTING FOR BOTH OF US, IT MAKES ME MUCH MORE CONSCIOUS ABOUT THE THINGS THAT WE CAN BE DOING AS CONSUMERS BECAUSE IT CAN BE REALLY DEPRESSING IF YOU LOOK AT THE SYSTEM AS A WHOLE. BUT I THINK THERE REALLY ARE TANGIBLE THINGS THAT AT LEAST I’VE BEEN TRYING TO KIND OF IMPLEMENT INTO MY LIFE AS… AS WE’VE BEEN DOING THESE STORIES.>>I WOULD SAY THE SAME THING. I MEAN, THERE ARE A LOT OF THESE ISSUES I DID THINK ABOUT BEFORE, BUT, TO YOUR POINT, ONCE YOU ACTUALLY REALLY START DIGGING IN AND LEARNING A LOT MORE ABOUT THEM, IT’S ALMOST LIKE IT MAKES GROCERY SHOPPING AND EATING A LITTLE BIT MORE STRESSFUL BECAUSE YOU’RE SORT OF BURDENED WITH THIS KNOWLEDGE NOW, RIGHT? “AM I DOING THE RIGHT THING? AM I EATING THE RIGHT FOODS? AM I FEEDING MY FAMILY THE RIGHT FOODS?” BUT, I MEAN, ULTIMATELY, I THINK WE BOTH REALLY ENJOYED WORKING ON THIS SERIES BECAUSE, YOU KNOW, WE’RE SORT OF HELPING EDUCATE OURSELVES AND OUR AUDIENCE ABOUT ALL THESE DIFFERENT ISSUES. AND WE’VE REALLY JUST BARELY SCRATCHED THE SURFACE, SO…>>Sreenivasan: OKAY.>>I THINK A LOT OF THE REPORTING THAT WE SAW BEFORE THIS IS VERY NEGATIVE, RIGHT? IT’S NOT THAT THIS REPORTING HASN’T BEEN DONE BEFORE, BUT IT WAS ALL ABOUT THE PROBLEMS WITH OUR FOOD SYSTEM. AND, I THINK, AS WE’VE BEEN TRYING TO EXPLORE IT, IT’S NOT ONLY ABOUT THE PROBLEMS, BUT IT’S ABOUT WHAT ON SMALL LEVELS CAN BE DONE, BUT WHAT ON MUCH LARGER LEVELS IS CURRENTLY BEING DONE, AS WELL. SO, IT’S NOT SO “DOOM AND GLOOM.”>>Sreenivasan: MELANIE SALTZMAN, MEGAN THOMPSON, THANKS TO YOU BOTH.>>THANKS, HARI.>>Mitchell: TOMORROW, WE WILL CONTINUE OUR SPECIAL SERIES WITH OUR NEWSHOUR WEEKEND PRODUCERS AND REPORTERS AS THEY TAKE A LOOK BACK AT 2019 AND AHEAD TO OUR COVERAGE PLANS FOR 2020. THAT’S ALL FOR THIS EDITION OF PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND. I’M KARINA MITCHELL. THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR WATCHING. HAVE A GREAT NIGHT.>>PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND IS MADEPOSSIBLE BY:BERNARD AND IRENE SCHWARTZ.SUE AND EDGAR WACHENHEIM III.THE CHERYL AND PHILIP MILSTEINFAMILY.ROSALIND P. WALTER, IN MEMORYOF GEORGE O’NEIL.BARBARA HOPE ZUCKERBERG.CHARLES ROSENBLUM.WE TRY TO LIVE IN THE MOMENT,TO NOT MISS WHAT’S RIGHT INFRONT OF US.AT MUTUAL OF AMERICA, WEBELIEVE TAKING CARE OF TOMORROWCAN HELP YOU MAKE THE MOST OFTODAY.MUTUAL OF AMERICA FINANCIALGROUP, RETIREMENT SERVICES ANDINVESTMENTS.ADDITIONAL SUPPORT HAS BEENPROVIDED BY:AND BY THE CORPORATION FORPUBLIC BROADCASTING, A PRIVATECORPORATION FUNDED BY THEAMERICAN PEOPLE.AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOURPBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKEYOU.THANK YOU.

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